Lean A to Z

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  24. X
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  26. Z
Cause-and-effect Diagram
A visual root cause analysis tool used to brainstorm and document potential causes and sub-causes for an undesired effect. Also referred to as an Ishikawa Diagram (after its developer) or Fishbone Diagram (due to its shape).
See Layout for Flow
The activity of converting a process from performing one type of work to another. Changeover time is the elapsed time from when the last good unit of the run just completed is completed until the first good unit of the following run is completed. Changeovers can be physical (changing a fixture) or mental (orienting one's self with the next "job"). Long changeovers often result in batch processing, inhibiting the ability to achieve one-piece-flow. This term is also commonly called Set-up.
Check Sheet
A simple form used to tabulate information regarding the type and frequency of an occurrence. Check sheets are often used to quantify data and provide direction for corrective actions or continuous improvement activities. Results from Check Sheets often provide the input data for creating Pareto Charts.
A form used as a reference to assure all of the key steps in a process have been completed. Check lists are often integrated into the standard work for an operation.
See Layout for Flow.
Complete and Accurate (% C & A)
See Percent Complete and Accurate.
Continuous Flow
A work process management system wherein workers only work on one unit at a time and only one unit of work moves from process to process. Implementation of continuous flow can have significant impact on reducing throughput time, minimizing waste and improving value adding activity. This concept is also referred to as Single Piece Flow or One Piece Flow. Contrast with Batch and Queue.
Continuous Improvement
A philosophy of frequently reviewing processes, identifying opportunities for improvement and implementing changes to get closer to perfection. See Kaizen and Kaikaku.
Cross-functional Team
A team comprised of individuals representing different functions within a given process. The team may be formed for a specific activity (e.g. a Kaizen Event), or the team may be more permanent in nature (a cross-functional team, co-located and cross-trained, put in place to support a specific product or customer).
To train individuals to perform a variety of tasks and skills. In a Lean environment, the focus of cross-training should be to increase competence along the Value Stream in order to optimize performance of that Value Stream.
See Current State
See Cycle Time
Current State (CS)
All of the steps that are performed to complete the work as it is operating in today's environment (this is often quite different from how a written procedure states it should be done) as well as the issues and performance (metrics) of the process.
Cycle Time (CT)
The frequency, or interval, of work being completed. Compare to Process Time, contrast with Lead Time.